Pre-diabetes also called borderline diabetes that is also becoming a global problem and closely tied to poor lifestyle choices. Pre-diabetes also means that you have a higher than normal blood sugar level but not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. However, without adequate lifestyle changes, people with pre-diabetes may likely develop type 2 diabetes.
Most often, people with pre-diabetes have no signs or symptoms. One possible sign of pre-diabetes is darkened skin on certain parts of the body including the neck, armpits, elbows, knees and knuckles.
- Overweight and over age 40
- High blood pressure.
- Low High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and high triglycerides.
- History of gestational diabetes.
- Family history of diabetes.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome.
- Sleep problems.
- Large consumption of red and processed meat and sugary beverages.
- Ethnic or minority group at high risk for diabetes, including African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, or Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, South Asian ethnicity.
- Increased thirst
- Increased urination
- Blurry vision
AVAILABLE TESTS FOR PRE-DIABETES
- Fating plasma glucose test where you won’t eat for 8 hours. Normal if blood sugar is less than 100 mg/dL, prediabetes at 100-125 mg/Dl, diabetes if blood sugar is 126 mg/dL or higher.
- Oral glucose tolerance test, where you have a fasting plasma glucose test, then you will be asked to eat something sugary. Normal if your blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL after the second test, pre-diabetes if blood sugar is 140-199 mg/dL after the second test, diabetes if your blood sugar is 200 mg/dL or higher after the second test.
- Hemoglobin A1C test. The blood test shows your average blood sugar levels for the past 2-3 months. Normal if blood test is 5.6% or less, pre-diabetes if 5.7-6.4% and diabetes if 6.5% and over.
HEALTHY LIFESTYLES ADVICE
- Eat a healthy balanced diet while you aim to eat more of fruits, vegetables, wholegrain. Cut down on red and processed meat, refined carbohydrates, sugary sweetened drinks.
- Be more physically active. Make small changes to become active every day.
- Lose excess body weight.
- Manage your blood pressure and cholesterol.
- Drink alcohol moderately.
- Being at risk of pre-diabetes does not mean you will develop type 2 diabetes. A big step in the right direction of making healthy lifestyle changes will reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes.
GEORGE ORISILE (PHARMACIST, PHARMAHEALTHTALK)
- Mayo Clinic Prediabetes